ADOS-2 - AUTISM DIAGNOSTIC OBSERVATION SCHEDULE 2nd

Catherine Lord, PhD, Michael Rutter, MD, et al.




This revision improves an instrument already viewed as «the gold standard» for observational assessment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

With updated protocols, revised algorithms, a new Comparison Score, and a Toddler Module, the ADOS-2 provides a highly accurate picture of current symptoms, unaffected by language. It can be used to evaluate almost anyone suspected of having ASD from one year olds with no speech, to adults who are verbally fluent.

Like its predecessor, the ADOS-2 is a semi-structured, standardised assessment of communication, social interaction, play, and restricted and repetitive behaviours. It presents various activities that elicit behaviours directly related to a diagnosis of ASD. By observing and coding these behaviours, you can obtain information that informs diagnosis, treatment planning, and educational placement. Five Modules

The ADOS-2 includes five modules, each requiring just 40 to 60 minutes to administer. The individual being evaluated is given only one module, selected on the basis of his or her expressive language level and chronological age. Following guidance provided in the manual, you choose the module that’s appropriate for the individual you’re evaluating.

Toddler Module: for children between 12 and 30 months of age who do not consistently use phrase speech

Module 1 - for children 31 months and older who do not consistently use phrase speech
Module 2 - for children of any age who use phrase speech but are not verbally fluent
Module 3 - for verbally fluent children and young adolescents
Module 4 - for verbally fluent older adolescents and adults

Standardised Administration, Coding, and Scoring Each ADOS-2 module has its own Protocol Booklet, which structures the administration and guides you through coding and scoring. As you administer activities, you observe the examinee and take notes. Immediately afterwards, you code the behaviours observed. Then you use the Algorithm Form for scoring.

In Modules 1 to 4, algorithm scores are compared with cutoff scores to yield one of three classifications: Autism, Autism Spectrum, and Non-spectrum. The difference between autism and autism spectrum classifications is one of severity, with the former indicating more pronounced symptoms. In the Toddler Module, algorithms yield «ranges of concern» rather than classification scores.

Improved Protocol Booklets, Revised Algorithms, and a New Comparison Score Administration and coding procedures for the ADOS-2 are functionally identical to those for the ADOS. Modules 1 to 4 retain the same basic activities and codes, though some codes have been expanded and several new codes have been added. Protocol Booklets for these modules have been signi- ficantly improved they now provide clearer, more explicit administration and coding instructions.

NB We also supply protocol booklets for the first version of ADOSplease see pricing information at the bottom of the page for more details.In the ADOS-2, algorithms for Modules 1 to 3 have been revised to achieve more accurate and useful results. These updated algorithms provide a more uniform basis for comparing results across the three modules that are used with child- ren and young adolescents.
A new Comparison Score for Modules 1 to 3 allows you to compare a child’s overall level of autism spectrum-related symptoms to that of children diagnosed with ASD who are the same age and have similar language skills.

This score also makes it easier to monitor an individual’s symptoms over time. A continuous metric, the Comparison Score ranges from 1 to 10. However, to facilitate clinical interpretation it can also be expressed as one of four descriptive categories from «no evidence of autism spectrum-related symptoms» to «a high level of autism spectrum-related symptoms.»

The new ADOS-2 scoring program helps you choose the correct algorithm, converts item codes to algorithm scores, adds up the algorithm, calculates the Comparison Score, and quickly arrives at an ADOS-2 classification or «range of concern.»

The New Toddler Module
The Toddler Module is designed specifically for children between 12 and 30 months of age who do not consistently use phrase speech. Existing ADOS-2 components have been revised, and new components added, to more accura- tely identify toddlers at risk for ASD.

The Toddler Module engages the child with loosely structured activities invol- ving highly motivating materials. The goal, again, is to see if the child demons- trates behaviours associated with ASD.

As in Modules 1 to 4, observations are coded immediately following adminis- tration, and the codes are converted to algorithm scores. However, Toddler Mo- dule algorithms provide «ranges of concern» rather than cutoff scores. These ranges help you form clinical impressions, but they avoid formal classification, which may not be appropriate at such a young age. The Toddler Module quan- tifies risk for ASD and signals the need for continued monitoring.

The Most Accurate Picture of Current ASD Symptoms With improved algorithms, the ADOS-2 demonstrates strong predictive validity. It gives you a highly accurate picture of current ASD related symptoms, based on realtime observations. Physicians, clinical psychologists, educational psy- chologists, speech and language therapist and occupational therapists rely on ADOS-2 results to inform diagnosis, intervention, educational placement and treatment planning.

Because it can be used with a wide range of children and adults, the ADOS-2 is an essential addition to any hospital, clinic or school that serves individuals with developmental disorders.






Caracteristics

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30-45 minutes

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Children and adult mental age greater than 2 years old

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Autism

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Individual